1. U.S. Census Bureau. 2022. Quick Facts North Carolina. Available at:
  2. Altarum Healthcare Value Hub. 2021. North Carolina Residents Struggle to Afford High Healthcare Costs; COVID Fears Add to Support for a Range of Government Solutions Across Party Lines. Available at:
  3. See endnote 2.
  4. Michael Karpman, Kassandra Martinchek, & Breno Braga. 2022. Medical Debt Fell During the Pandemic. How Can the Decline Be Sustained? Available at:
  5. Mark A. Hall & Katherine E. Booth. 2016. Can Medicaid Help Military Veterans? Available at:
  6. Jennifer Haley, Jason Gates, Matthew Buettgens, & Genevieve M. Kenney. 2016. Veterans and Their Family Members Gain Coverage Under the ACA, but Opportunities for More Progress Remain. Available at:
  7. Lynne Bonner. 2022. Medicaid Expansion Would Improve NC Rural Residents’ Health and Local Economies, Experts Say. Available at:
  8. Cristy Craig. 2021. Protect NC Rural Hospitals and Communities: Close the Health Insurance Coverage Gap. Available at:
  9. See endnote 8.
  10. UNC G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. 2023. Rural Hospital Closures Maps, 2005–Present. Available at:
  11. Brendan Riley. 2019. Profiling North Carolina’s Uninsured: How EXPANDING MEDICAID Can Make a Difference. Available at:
  12. ARPA = American Rescue Plan Act; HASP = Healthcare Access and Stabilization Program
  13. Jade Little. 2022. North Carolina: A Bipartisan Effort to Expand Medicaid Coverage and Improve Access to Healthcare. Available at:
  14. North Carolina Healthcare Association. 2023. What Is HASP—And Why Does It Matter for North Carolina? Available at:
  15. Jessica T. Simes & Jaquelyn L. Jahn. 2022. The Consequences of Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act for Police Arrests. Available at:
  16. Jocelyn Guyer, Deborah Bachrach, & Naomi Shine. 2015. Medicaid Expansion and Criminal Justice Costs: Pre-Expansion Studies and Emerging Practices Point Toward Opportunities for States. Available at:
  17. NC Rural Center. 2022. NC Rural Center Continues to Endorse Medicaid Expansion, Citing That North Carolina’s Rural People Are Disproportionately Uninsured. Available at: